To date, the resources included here are those primarily available in English. We recognize that this can limit access and be exclusionary. Thus, please consider this a starting point only and a work in progress. If you have intercultural competence resources that you would like to have considered for inclusion (in any language), please send them to:

Resources are arranged below by Working Group.

Books and Reports

Defining Intercultural and Global Competence

Bennett, M. J. (Ed.). (2013). Basic Concepts of Intercultural Communication: Paradigms, Principles, and Practices (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Intercultural Press.
Berardo, K., & Deardorff, D.K. (2012).  Building Cultural Competence:  Innovative Activities and Models. Sterling, VA: Stylus.

Berninghausen, J., & Schreiber, E. (Eds.). (2008). Global Competence for the Future: Employability – Mobility – Quality. Collaboration and Current Developments. Bremen, Germany: Kellner-Verlag.
Council of Europe. (2015). TASKs for Democracy: 60 Activities to Learn and Assess Transversal Attitudes, Skills, and Knowledge. Strasbourg:  Council of Europe.
Chen, G. M., & Dai, X. (2014). Intercultural Communication Competence: Conceptualization and its Development in Cultural Contexts and Interactions. Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Cooper, P. J., Calloway-Thomas, C., & Simonds, C. J. (2007). Intercultural Communication: A Text with Readings. Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.
Council of Europe. (2012). Intercultural Competence for All:  Preparation for Living in a Heterogeneous World.  Strasburg:  Council of Europe.
Council of Europe. (2014). Developing Intercultural Competence Through Education.   Strasburg:  Council of Europe.
Deardorff, D. K. (2009). The SAGE Handbook of Intercultural Competence. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Fantini, A. E. (1997). New Ways in Teaching Culture. Alexandria, VA: TESOL

Fantini, A. E. (2018). Intercultural communicative competence in educational exchange: A multinational perspective. Routledge.
Guerrero, L. K., & Hecht, M. (Eds.). (2007). The Nonverbal Communication Reader: Classic and Contemporary Readings. 3rd ed. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
Guerrero, L. K., & Hecht, M. (Eds.). (2007). The Nonverbal Communication Reader: Classic and Contemporary Readings. 3rd ed. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
Hall, E. T. (1981). Beyond Culture. New York, NY: Doubleday.
Hecht, M. L. (Ed.). (1998). Communicating Prejudice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Hughes, G., & Thiagarajan, S. (2013). Photo Jolts! Image-based Activities that Increase Clarity, Creativity, and Conversation. SAH.
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Retrieved from

Javier Pérez de Cuéllar (1996). Our creative diversity: report of the World Commission on Culture and Development. Retrieved from

Leeds-Hurwitz, W. (1993). Semiotics and Communication:  Signs, Codes, Cultures. Routledge.
Lustig, M. W., & Koester, J. (2012). Intercultural Competence: Interpersonal Communication across Cultures. 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Martin, J. N., & Nakayama T. K. (2014). Experiencing Intercultural Communication: An Introduction. 5th ed. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
Martin, J. N., & Nakayama T. K. (2012). Intercultural Communication in Contexts. 6th ed. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
Martin, J. N., Nakayama, T. K., & Flores, L.A. (Eds.). (2002). Readings in Intercultural Communication: Experiences and Contexts. 2nd ed. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
Matsumoto, D. (Ed.). (2010). APA Handbook of Intercultural Communication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Neuliep, J.W. (2014). Intercultural Communication: A Contextual Approach. 6th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Oetzel, J. G. (2008). Intercultural Communication: A Layered Approach. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
UNESCO. (2013). Intercultural Competences. Paris: UNESCO.

Universal Declaration on cultural diversity. Retrieved from 

Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Retrieved from

Assessment of Intercultural and Global Competence

Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and Assessing Intercultural Communicative Competence. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Byram, M. (2008). From Foreign Language Education to Education for Intercultural Citizenship Essays and Reflections. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Schat, E., Van der Knaap, E., & de Graaff, R. (2021). The development and validation of an intercultural competence evaluation instrument for upper secondary foreign language teaching, Intercultural Communication Education , 4(2), pp. 137-154.

Communication and Intercultural and Global Competence

Asante, M. K., Miike, Y., & Yin, J. (Eds.). (2013). The Global Intercultural Communication Reader. 2nd ed. London, UK: Routledge.
Samovar, L. A., Porter, R. E., & McDaniel, E. R. (Eds.). (2014). Intercultural Communication: A Reader. 14th ed. Independence, KY: Cengage Learning.
Saphiere, D. H., Mikk, B. K., & DeVries, B. I. (2005). Communication Highwire: Leveraging the Power of Diverse Communication Styles. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press (Nicholas Brealey).
Ting-Toomey, S. (1999). Communicating Across Cultures. New York, NY: Guilford.

Community Based Actions and ICC/GC

Baldwin, J. R., Coleman, R. M, Gonzalez, A., & Shenoy-Packer, S. (2014). Intercultural Communication for Everyday Life. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
Bautti, M. (2016). Rethinking the concept of intercultural conflict: Italian Returnees’ Attitudes Towards Others During a Cultural Conflict, FLEKS Scandinavian Journal of Intercultural Theory and Practice, 3, (1), 1-18.
Berry, J. W., Phinney, J. S., San, D. S., & Vedder, P. (2012). Immigrant Youth in Cultural Transition: Acculturation, Identity, and Adaptation Across National Contexts. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis Group.
Cheong, P. H., Martin, J., N. & Macfadyen, L. P. (2012). New Media and Intercultural Communication: Identity, Community and Politics. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.
Churchill, R. P. (2006). Human Rights and Global Diversity. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Council of Europe. (2016). Competence for Democratic Culture: Living Together as Equals in Culturally Diverse Democratic Societies.  Strasburg: Council of Europe.
Gannon, M. J., & Pillai, R. K. (2012). Understanding Global Cultures: Metaphorical Journeys Through 31 Nations, Clusters of Nations, Continents, and Diversity (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
LeBaron, M., & Pillay, V. (2006). Conflict Across Cultures: A Unique Experience Bridging Differences. Boston, MA: Nicholas Brealey.
Molinsky, A. (2013). Global Dexterity: How to Adapt Your Behavior Across Cultures without Losing Yourself in the Process. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press.
Pedersen, P., Crethar, H., & Carlson, J. (2008). Inclusive Cultural Empathy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 

Peterson, B. (2004). Cultural Intelligence: A Guide to Working with People from Other Cultures. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press (Nicholas Brealey).
Ting-Toomey, S., & Oetzel, J. G. (2001). Managing Intercultural Conflict Effectively. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on ICC/GC

Fouad, N. A., & Arredondo, P. (2007). Becoming Culturally Oriented: Practical Advice for Psychologists and Educators. Washington, DC: American Psychologists Press.
Hofstede, G.J., Pederson, P. B., & Hofstede, G. (2002). Exploring Culture: Exercises, Stories and Synthetic Cultures. Boston: Intercultural Press.

Holmes, P. & Dervin, F. (2016) The Cultural and Intercultural Dimensions of English as a Lingua Franca. Languages for Intercultural Communication and Education, 29. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Hua, Z. (Ed.). (2011). The Language and Intercultural Communication Reader. New York, NY: Routledge.
Jackson, J. (2014). Introducing Language and Intercultural Communication. New York, NY: Routledge.
Jackson, J. (2012). The Routledge Handbook of Language and Intercultural Communication. New York, NY: Routledge.
Jandt, F. E. (2015). An Introduction to Intercultural Communication: Identities in a Global Community. 8th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Spencer-Oatey, H. & Franklin, P. (2009). Intercultural Interaction: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Intercultural Communication New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Sternberg, R. J. (Ed.). (2005). The Psychology of Hate. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Early Career Professionals and ICC/GC

Gundara, J. S. (2000). Interculturalism, Education and Inclusion. Sage, USA.
Tileston, D. W. (2004). What Every Teacher Should Know About Diverse Learners. Corwin Press.

Faculty Development for ICC/GC

Gutek, G. L. (1993). American Education in a Global Society: Internationalizing Teacher Education. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
Paulston, C. B., Kiesling, S. F., & Rangel, E. S. (Eds.). (2012). The Handbook of Intercultural Discourse and Communication. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Ward, C. (2013). Beyond Culture Shock. New York, NY: Routledge, 2013.

International Education and ICC/GC

De Wit, H. (2002). Internationalization of Higher Education in the United States Of America And Europe: A Historical, Comparative and Conceptual Analysis. Boston, MA: Center for Internationalization of Higher Education.
Hayward, F. M. (2000). Internationalization of U.S. Higher Education. Preliminary Status Report, 2000. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
Helms, R. (2015). Internationalizing U.S. Higher Education: Current Policies, Future Directions. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
Helms, R. M., Brajkovic, L., & Struthers, B. (2017). Mapping Internationalization on U.S. Campuses. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
Holzner, B., Greenwood, D. (1995). The Institutional Policy Contexts for International Higher Education in the United States of America. In H. de Wit, (Ed.), Strategies for Internationalisation of Higher Education: A Comparative Study of Australia, Canada, Europe and the United States of America (1st ed., pp.33-63). Amsterdam: European Association for International Education.
Jones, E., Coelen, R., Beelen, J., & De Wit, H. (Eds.). (2016). Global and Local Internationalization. Rotterdam/Boston/Taipei: Sense Publishers. 

Kappler-Mikk, B., Cohen, A.D., & Paige, R.M. (2009). Maximizing Study Abroad: An
Instructional Guide to Strategies for Language and Culture Learning and Use. Minneapolis, MN: Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition.

K-12 and ICC/GC

Fennes, H., & Hapgood, K. (1997). Intercultural Learning in the Classroom. London, United Kingdom: Cassell.

Policy and ICC/GC

Helms, R., Rumbley, L. E., Brajkovic, L., & Mihut, G. (2015). Internationalizing Higher Education Worldwide: National Policies and Programs.

Sustainable Development Goals and ICC/GC

Lederach, J. P. (2011). Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies. United States Institute of Peace.
Lederach, J. P. (2002). A Handbook of International Peacebuilding: Into the Eye of the Storm. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Rothenberg, P. (2006). Beyond Borders: Thinking Critically About Global Issues. New York, NY: Worth Publishers.
Shaules, J. (2007). Deep Culture: The Hidden Challenges of Global Living. Buffalo, NY: Multilingual Matters.

Tools and Resources in ICC/GC

Clayton, J. (2002). One Classroom, Many Worlds. Heinemann.
Fowler, S. & Mumford, M. (Eds.). (1995, 1999). Intercultural Sourcebook: Cross-Cultural Training Methods. Volumes I and II. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
Kim, U., Yang, K.S., & Hwang, K. K. (Eds.). (2006). Indigenous and Cultural Psychology: Understanding People in Context. New York, NY: Springer SBM Publications.
Kohls, L. R, & Knight, J. (1994). Developing Intercultural Awareness: A Cross-Cultural Training Handbook, 2nd Edition. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
Schaetti, B. F., Ramsey, S. J., & Watanabe, G. C. (2008). Personal Leadership: A Methodology of Two Principles and Six Practices. Seattle, WA: Flying Kite Publications.
Seelye, H. N. (1996). Experiential Activities for Intercultural Learning. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
Storti, C. (1994). Cross-Cultural Dialogues: 74 Brief Encounters with Cultural Difference. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
Stringer, D. M., & Cassiday, P. A. (2003). 52 Activities for Exploring Value Differences. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
Stringer, D. M., & Cassiday, P. A. (2009). 52 Activities for Improving Cross-cultural Communication. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.

Underrepresented Voices in ICC/GC Research and Practice

González, A., Houston, M., & Chen, V. (2011). Our Voices: Essays in Culture, Ethnicity, and Communication: An Intercultural Anthology (5th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Henderson, G., Spigner-Littles, D., & Hall Millhouse, V. (2006). A Practitioner’s Guide to Understanding Indigenous and Foreign Cultures. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
Kim, U., Yang, K. S., & Hwang, K. K. (Eds.). (2006). Indigenous and Cultural Psychology: Understanding People in Context. New York, NY: Springer SBM Publications.
Orbe, M. P., & Harris, T. M. (2013). Interracial Communication: Theory into Practice (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Prince, D. W., & Hoppe, M. H. (2007). Communicating Across Cultures. Hoboken, NJ: Pfeiffer.
Sorrells, K. (2012). Intercultural Communication: Globalization and Social Justice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Storti, C. (2017). Understanding the World’s Cultures: 20th Anniversary Edition of the Classic, Figuring Foreigners Out, A Practical Guide. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press (Nicholas Brealey).
Storti, C. (2001). The Art of Crossing Cultures (2nd ed.). Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
Ting-Toomey, S. (1999). Communicating Across Cultures. New York, NY: Guilford.

ICC/GC and Virtual Environments

Ward, H.H. (2016). Internationalization in Action. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.

Eren, Ö. (2021). Raising critical cultural awareness through telecollaboration: insights for pre-service teacher education. Computer Assisted Language Learning. DOI: 10.1080/09588221.2021.1916538

Internationalization and ICC/GC

Ammigan, R. (Ed.). (2021). Cross-cultural narratives: Stories and experiences of international students. USA: STAR Scholars.

Ammigan, R, & Langton, D. (2018). The international student experience in Australia: Implications for administrators and student support staff. Retrieved from

Long, K. (2020). The emergence of the American university abroad. Netherlands: Brill

Predovic, D., Dennis, J., Jones E. (2018).  Developing unexpected skills with international internships. Retrieved from


General Articles

Baiutti, M. (2019). Protocollo di valutazione Intercultura. Comprendere, problematizzare e valutare la mobilità studentesca internazionale, ETS: Pisa (pdf integrale scaricabile QUI
Baiutti, M., & Paolone, A. R. (2018). Il valore pedagogico interculturale del diario di bordo durante la mobilità studentesca internazionale individuale: la prospettiva degli insegnanti. Encyclopaideia – Journal of Phenomenology and Education, 22(52), 55-72.
Baiutti, M. (2018). Fostering assessment of student mobility in secondary schools: Indicators of intercultural competence. Intercultural Education, 29(5-6), 549-570. 
Baiutti, M. (2017). Competenza interculturale e mobilità studentesca. Riflessioni pedagogiche per la valutazione, ETS: Pisa
Deardorff, D.K. (2015). A 21st Century Imperative: integrating intercultural competence in Tuning. Available online
Fang, F., & Elyas, T. (2021). Promoting teacher professionalism in language education from the perspective of critical intercultural literacy. Intercultural Communication Education 4(2), pp. 177-190.

Holmes, P.  (2015). ‘The cultural stuff around how to talk to people’: Immigrants’ intercultural communication during a pre-employment work-placement. Language and Intercultural Communication 15(1), 109-124.
Holmes, P. and O’Neill, G. (2012). Developing and evaluating intercultural competence: Ethnographies of intercultural encounters, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36 (5), 707-718.
McLendon, M. K. (2003). The politics of higher education: Toward an expanded research agenda. Educational Policy, 17(1), 165–191. doi:10.1177/0895904802239291

O’Dowd,R. (2018). From telecollaboration to virtual exchange: state-of-the-art and the role of UNICollaboration in moving forward. Journal of Virtual Exchange.

Peng, R. Z., Zhu, C., & Wu, W. P. (2020). Visualizing the knowledge domain of intercultural competence research: A bibliometric analysis. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 74, 58-68.

Ponciano, L., & Shabazian, A.N. (2012). Interculturalism: Addressing Diversity in Early Childhood. Dimensions of Early Childhood, 40, 23-30.

Tiurikova, I. (2021). Researching intercultural competence in language learners: Gaps between theory and methodology. Intercultural Communication Education 4(2), pp. 122-136.

International Education and ICC/GC

Deardorff, D.K. (2012). International Student Success: The Missing Piece. Academic Impressions.

Helms, R. (August 31, 2016). International Partnerships: What does it mean to be strategic? Higher Education Today.

Horn, A. S., Hendel, D. D., Fry, G.W. (2012). The empirical basis for adopting a civic rationale for internationalization. Higher Education, 64, 161-175. doi: 10.1007/s10734-011-9485-0

Knight, J. (1997). A shared vision? Stakeholders’ perspectives on the internationalization of higher education in Canada. Journal of Studies in International Education 1(1), 27-44. 

Knight, J. (1999). Internationalisation of higher education. In H. DeWit, J. Knight, (Eds.), Quality and Internationalisation of Higher Education (1st ed.; pp. 13-23). IMHE, OECD: Paris. 

Knight, J. (2003). Updated internationalization definition. International Journal of Higher Education, 33, 2-3. 

Knight, J. (2004). Internationalization remodeled: Definition, approaches, and rationales. Journal of Studies in International Education, 8(1), 5-31.

Internationalization and ICC/GC

Ammigan, R. (2018). Communication preferences among international students: Strategies for creating optimal Engagement in programs and services. Journal of International Students 8(3):1293–1315. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1254584

Ammigan, R. (2018). Improving the student experience: Learning from a comparative study of international student satisfaction. Journal of Studies in International Education 22(4). doi:10.1177/1028315318773137

Ammigan, R. (2019). Institutional Satisfaction and recommendation: What really matters to international students. Journal of International Students 9(1), 253-272. doi:10.32674/jis.v9i1.260

Ammigan, R. (2021). The differential impact of learning experiences on international student satisfaction and institutional recommendation. Journal of International Students 11(2). doi:10.32674/jis.v11i2.2038

Briggs, P.& Ammigan, R. (2017). A collaborative programming and outreach model for international student support services. Journal of International Students 7(4):1080-1095. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.1035969

Veerasamy, Y.S. (2021). Emerging Direction of U.S. National Higher Education Internationalization Policy Efforts between 2000 and 2019. Retrieved from

Assessment of ICC/GC

Schat, E., Van der Knaap, E., & de Graaff, R. (2021). The development and validation of an intercultural competence evaluation instrument for upper secondary foreign language teaching. Intercultural Communication Education, 4(2), pp. 137-154.

The MENA Region and ICC/GC

Atwan, S. K. I. (2010). The Quest for Intercultural Dialogue in the Euro-Mediterranean Region: Opportunities and Challenges. EUI-RSCAS Working Papers, (74).

EL Maghougi, N., & Barbouchi, L.(2017). The Poetics and Politics of Intercultural Translation within Globalization:
 American Translations of Moroccan Culture in the Contact Zone of Tangier (1950s -1970s). Retrieved from

Guerriche, A. (2020). Intercultural identity development through study abroad programmes: an ethnographic case study of Algerian students in a UK university (Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Bath, UK).

Non-English Resources

Chinese Language ICC/GC Resources

Online Resources

General Online Resources

50 Case Studies in Intercultural Communication: 

Addressing Anti-Asian Bias in the classrooms

Addressing Educational Needs of Teachers in the EU for Inclusive Education in a Context of Diversity: Volume 1 Teachers’ Intercultural Competence: Working Definition and implications for Teacher Education 
Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters. 

Critical Incidents for Intercultural Communication:  An interactive tool for developing awareness, knowledge, and skills. 

Environmental Racism:

Global Dimensions of Student Development at ACPA

IEREST Intercultural Education Resources for Erasmus Students and Teachers 
Intercultural Communication Bibliography
Intercultural Communication Education:

Intercultural Communication Resource Pack.  SALTO Youth. 
Intercultural Learning Hub (HubICL) 
Intercultural Training Pack 
Intercultural Training with a Focus on Migration & Asylum 
Journal of Comparative & International Higher Education, OJED:

Journal of International Students, OJED:

latitude(s) Newsletter

NAFSA: Association of International Educators

New Directions for Teaching and Learning (Number 157 – Spring 2019). Learning at Intercultural Intersections: Indigenization, Internationalization, and Intercultural Learning. 

PISA Global Competence Results 
Story Circles
What’s Up with Culture: On-line Cultural Training Resource for Study Abroad, University of the Pacific