ICC Research

Darla Deardorff's picture

What is the latest in research on intercultural competence? What research questions would you like feedback on? What are some possible areas of research collaboration with ICC colleagues from different cultures and disciplines? This is the place to share information, feedback and questions related to research on intercultural competence.

MaxRamseyer's picture

15. The Moral Circle in Intercultural Competence – Gert Jan Hofstede - Toward Intercultural Competence

Using the five dimensions outlined for conceptualizing culture, one can begin to grasp how to discern and create a “moral circle,” which is intended to provide the rules for acceptable behavior. In addition, Hofstede also describes that the creation of the moral circle is also dictated by negotiation, leadership style, and reconciling different life aims. He also highlights that whereas the West has a much individualistic conception of leadership qualities, the East is communitarian based as shown by an appreciation for “proactive guides and caring authoritarian figures.”

MaxRamseyer's picture

13. The Moral Circle in Intercultural Competence – Gert Jan Hofstede The Biological Basis of Morality; Evolution of Morality; Trust and the Moral Circle; Intrinsic and Enforceable Trust; Trust Emotions and Personality

Hofstede emphasize the role and qualities of trust in forging effective intercultural relations. He begins by discussing the various natures of trust. There is enforced trust, which is driven by incentives and calculated interests usually enforced by contracts or other buffer of power, and there is intrinsic trust, which is what all people desire (Maslow) and satisfies one of our basic needs to belong. Hofstede also discusses how trust and ethics are culturally dependent and therefore vary from group to group.

MaxRamseyer's picture

12. The Intercultural Competence Global Leader – Margaret D. Pusch Part 4 Global Leadership: Why is Intercultural Competence Important?

According to Pusch and Golandaz, leaders are people who mobilize others towards a future goal, must be able to articulate and inspire a vision, and carry out the leadership in collaboration with others. “Glocalization,” which means the ability to absorb foreign ideas and the best practices from other places and meld them with indigenous traditions. Pusch also cited a leadership study conducted by the Blobal Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness project team.

MaxRamseyer's picture

The Intercultural Competence Global Leader – Margaret D. Pusch Part 3

Pusch then sets out to describe some of the underlying characteristics of global competent leaders. She names “the greatest survival skill” which is to learn how to learn. A quote that I thought was particularly helpful was, “the best way to learn how to learn is to love to learn, and the best way to love to learn is to have great teachers who inspire you.” She therefore makes a call for mentoring and “inspirational” training within organizational environments.

MaxRamseyer's picture

14. The Moral Circle in Intercultural Competence – Gert Jan Hofstede Culture p. 90

Hofstede moves on to describe the research on the five dimensions that define and describe the nature of a particular culture. They are:
1. Identity: Individualism vs. Collectivism
2. Hierarchy: Large vs. Small Power Distance
3. Gratification: short term vs. long term
4. Gender and Aggression: Male vs. Female
5. Anxiety: Weak vs. Strong Uncertainty Avoidance

Question: Do you think these five points are comprehensive? What else might you add, subtract, combine, or change altogether from this list?

MaxRamseyer's picture

The Moral Circle in Intercultural Competence – Gert Jan Hofstede The Biological Basis of Morality; Evolution of Morality; Trust and the Moral Circle; Intrinsic and Enforceable Trust; Trust Emotions and Personality

Hofstede emphasize the role and qualities of trust in forging effective intercultural relations. He begins by discussing the various natures of trust. There is enforced trust, which is driven by incentives and calculated interests usually enforced by contracts or other buffer of power, and there is intrinsic trust, which is what all people desire (Maslow) and satisfies one of our basic needs to belong. Hofstede also discusses how trust and ethics are culturally dependent and therefore vary from group to group.

MaxRamseyer's picture

The Intercultural Competence Global Leader – Margaret D. Pusch Part 2

Pusch sets forth a list of points of strategy and development that can cultivate the attributes described in globally competent leaders:
1. Mindfulness. The idea here is to incorporate a new rhythm of self-talk within intercultural exchanges, in which one moves from the results oriented script of “Am I being liked? What can I say to make an impression” to “What is happening here? How are reacting to each other? What might I say to help this process?”

MaxRamseyer's picture

Spitzberg Conclusion

Spitzberg then enumerates an extensive list of the concepts and factor labels associated with intercultural competence. The category headings are:
1. Motivation
2. Knowledge
3. Skills: Higher Order Skills (Ability to Use Certain Behaviors)
4. Macro-Level Skills/Competencies
5. Skills: Attentiveness
6. Composure
7. Coordination
8. Expressiveness
9. Contextual Competencies
10. Outcomes
11. Context

MaxRamseyer's picture

6. The Status of Conceptualizations of Intercultural Communication Competence 

Spitzberg raises the importance of four particular sets of issues: the question of interrelatedness of personal states (such as motivation, skills, and knowledge) and the role of adaptability.

MaxRamseyer's picture

3. What is competence?

Spitzberg claims that competence is the "process of managing interaction in ways that are likely to produce more appropriate and effective individual, relational, group, or institutional outcomes."
Multiple other functions of competence include

MaxRamseyer's picture

The Intercultural Competence Global Leader – Margaret D. Pusch

Part 1
Intercultural competence figures in the global leadership dimension and is considered to be the combination of “mind set, skill set, and heart set,” i.e. behavioral, cognitive, and affective dimensions. Pusch references Deardorff’s model for intercultural competence as a frame of reference to understand the progression of learning and individual development: from attitudes, to skills and knowledge, and to producing internal and external outcomes.

From this description, Pusch sets forth a series of other forms of understanding the process, which are:

MaxRamseyer's picture

The Identity Factor in Intercultural Competence – Young Yun Kim

Young Yun Kim posits two theories to explain the capacities necessary for engaged and successful intercultural encounters:
1. Inclusive Identity formation
2. Sense of identity security

MaxRamseyer's picture

The Identity Factor in Intercultural Competence (Sage Handbook for Intercultural Competence)

Young Yun Kim posits two theories to explain the capacities necessary for engaged and successful intercultural encounters:
1. Inclusive Identity formation
2. Sense of identity security

MaxRamseyer's picture

5. A Synoptic Review of intercultural Competence Theories and Methods

1. Needs springing from increased international relations and involvement i.e. Peace Corps measurements and productivity
2. Five primary frames of intercultural conceptualization:
1. Composition: focus on "probable traits, characteristics, and skills" usually presented in a series of lists without indicating relationships between variants.
2. Co-Orientational: interactional achievement of any one of intercultural variants including skills, such as linguistic competencies as would argue Fantini.

MaxRamseyer's picture

4. How does culture fit into the framework of intercultural competence?

Spitzberg discusses how culture involves the intergenerational set of attitudes, beliefs, values, rituals, customs, and behavioral patterns.

MaxRamseyer's picture

Chapter 1: Conceptualizing Intercultural Competence Brian H. Spitzberg and Gabrielle Changnon

The rationales for Intercultural Competence

1. Economic: in a globalized world, businesses must be able to manage the interconnectedness of diversity and compete better against other businesses for the future of their success. "Lack of cultural communication of one business employee led to 98% loss of the businesses market share to a competitor."
2. Social: tourists represent the US around the world, we need people to know how to interact and represent America dutifully

MaxRamseyer's picture

SAGE HANDBOOK FOR INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE: Introduction by Dr. Darla Deardorff

What does an interculturally competent worker look like?
Most chapters are written from a primarily US perspective
How do assess intercultural competence?

Concluding Thoughts encouraged by Derek Bok

1. Intercultural competence is more than just language (about attitudes, beliefs, disposition…) in fact language's role is a highly disputed topic within the intercultural competence academic world

nodushan's picture

IJLS Special Issue on IC: Inviting Guest Editor

Dear Colleagues

Darla Deardorff's picture

Welcome to new ICC Global members!

All - Hope your new year is off to a great start! And a Happy Year of the Horse to those celebrating Chinese New Year! We want to extend a special welcome to new members of ICC Global joining us in the last month - we look forward to your contributions to our ICC Global network. Please do introduce yourselves, let us know about your current ICC work, any interesting ICC resources and any ICC questions you have.

Baiutti Mattia's picture

History of IC

Dear all,

I have a question: who is the first thinker/author/scholar who uses the statement
"Intercultural competence"?

Thank you!
Mattia (Italy)

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